ANC (African National Congress): founded in 1912, the ANC played a decisive role in the South African antiapartheid struggle under the leadership of Nelson Mandela; today, it is South Africa’s ruling party.

BCM (Black Consciousness Movement): a grassroots antiapartheid movement that emerged in the 1960s and focused on the organizational autonomy of blacks and people of color in South Africa; after its most prominent representative, Steve Biko, died in police custody in 1977, the legacy of the BCM was carried on by a variety of different organizations, among them the short-lived communist group Isandlwana Revolutionary Effort, IRE, named after the site of the first major battle in the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879.

CPC (Communist Party of China): founding and ruling party of the People’s Republic of China.

DBS (Danmarks Socialistiske Befrielseshær): “Denmark’s Socialist Liberation Army” was a clandestine group that claimed responsibility for a number of arson attacks on corporate targets around Århus in the early 1980s.

DFLP (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine): see PFLP.

DKP (Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti): the Communist Party of Denmark, founded in 1919, reached its height after World War II with many of its members credited for their active resistance against the Nazi occupation; allied with the Soviet Union during the Cold War, the DKP was represented in the Danish parliament until the 1970s; today, it is
a part of the Red-Green Alliance (Enhedslisten–De Rød-Grønne).

FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia): the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia are a Marxist-Leninist guerrilla organization active since 1964.

FMLN (Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional): the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front was founded as a coalition of left-wing guerrilla movements in El Salvador in 1980; today, it is a left-leaning political party.

FNL (Front National de Libération): Marxist-Leninist resistance and liberation movement in South Vietnam, active from 1954 to 1976 and commonly known as the Viet Cong (in English also as the National Liberation Front, NLF).

FNLA (Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola): Angolan national liberation movement founded in 1954; today a center-right political party.

FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique): Mozambique Liberation Front, founded in 1962 and a driving force in Mozambique’s independence struggle; embraced Marxism-Leninism from 1977 to 1990 and remains the country’s ruling party to this day, now as a member of the Socialist International of Social Democratic parties.

FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional): socialist liberation movement in Nicaragua, commonly known as Sandinistas, responsible for the overthrow of the authoritarian regime of Anastasio Somoza in 1979; today, the FSLN rules Nicaragua as a Social Democratic party.

IRE (Isandlwana Revolutionary Effort): see BCM.

KAK (Kommunistisk Arbejdskreds): Danish Marxist-Leninist organization founded by Gotfred Appel and others in 1963; the so-called Blekingegade Group emerged from it in the 1970s; dissolved in 1980; published the journal Kommunistisk Orientering.

KAP (Kommunistisk Arbejdarparti): see KFML.

KBW (Kommunistischer Bund Westdeutschland): the Communist League of West Germany was a Maoist organization founded in 1973 and dissolved in 1985; it was one of the most influential of the numerous German “K-groups” (K for kommunistisch).

KFML (Kommunistisk Forbund Marxister-Leninister): the Communist Alliance of Marxist-Leninists was a Danish Maoist organization founded by former KAK members in 1968; the KFML turned into the Kommunistisk Arbejderparti [Communist Workers’ Party], KAP, in 1976 (dissolved in 1994).

KUF (Kommunistisk Ungdomsforbund): KAK’s youth chapter, founded in 1968, dissolved in 1975; published the journal Ungkommunisten from 1968 to 1970.

LSM (Liberation Support Movement): North American anti-imperialist organization focusing on support of Third World liberation movements; active from 1969 to 1982.

MAG (Marxistisk Arbejdsgruppe): a short-lived (1978–1980) Marxist organization that formed after the KAK split in 1978.

M-KA (Manifest–Kommunistisk Arbejdsgruppe): emerged as a Marxist organization after the KAK split in 1978; named after its journal Manifest, which was published from 1978 to 1982 (later, the name stood for a publishing house); the organization’s core group was more or less identical with the Blekingegade Group members.

MPLN (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola): the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola was founded in 1956 on Marxist-Leninist principles, played a decisive role in the Angolan independence struggle, and has ruled Angola since independence in 1975, today belonging to the Socialist International of Social Democratic parties.

PAC (Pan Africanist Congress of Azania): founded in 1959 as a pan-Africanist split from the ANC, PAC was an important force during the antiapartheid struggle; today, it remains a small political party.

PFLO (Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman): the PFLO emerged from the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf (later, Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf ), PFLOAG, which was involved in armed resistance against the Sultanate of Oman from the late 1960s into the 1970s; it existed as a
political organization until the early 1990s.

PFLOAG (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf/Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf): see

PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine): founded in 1967 as a pan-Arab organization pursuing the establishment of an independent Palestinian state, the PFLP soon embraced Marxism-Leninism; the best-known among its breakaway factions are the Syrian-based Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command,

PFLP-GC, founded in 1968 as an action-oriented organization critical of Marxist ideology, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, DFLP, a Maoist organization founded in 1969 (originally as the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, PDFLP), and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–Special Operations (also known as External Operations or Special Operations Group), founded by Wadi Haddad in the early 1970s and focusing on high-profile international actions.

PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization): a Palestinian umbrella organization founded in 1964 with the aim of establishing an independent Palestinian state; today, widely recognized as the official international representative of the Palestinian people; after Fatah, founded by Yasser Arafat in 1965, the PFLP is the PLO’s second-strongest faction.

RAF (Rote Armee Fraktion): the Red Army Faction was a German urban guerrilla movement founded on anti-imperialist principles in 1970.

SED (Sozialististische Einheitspartei Deutschlands): the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, founded in 1946 as a merger of the German Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) and the German Communist Party (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) in the Soviet occupation zone, was the ruling
party of the German Democratic Republic, GDR, commonly known as East Germany.

SWAPO (South West Africa People’s Organization): founded in 1960, SWAPO was the driving force in the Namibian independence struggle and has been the ruling party since Namibia’s independence in 1990; it belongs to the Socialist International of Social Democratic parties.

TTA (Tøj til Afrika): “Clothes for Africa” was a Third World solidarity project founded by KAK in 1972; dissolved in 1986 and replaced by Café Liberation, which closed in 1989.

UNITA (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola): the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola was founded in 1966 and was, besides the MPLA, the main force during the struggle for Angola’s independence; engaged in a twenty-seven-year-long military conflict with the MPLA after independence in 1975, it is today a center-right political party and the country’s second-largest.

ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union): formed in 1963 and the driving force in the Zimbabwean independence struggle; Zimbabwe’s ruling party since independence in 1980 (today, officially named Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front).


» KAK, the journal Orientering (from October 1964, Kommunistisk Orientering), and the publishing house Futura founded


» Gotfred Appel travels to China for the first time to meet with CPC representatives


» KAK founds the Vietnamkomité


» KUF, the journal Ungkommunisten and the Anti-imperialistisk Aktionskomité founded; Peter Døllner, Holger Jensen, and Jan Weimann are among the first KUF members


» KAK’s collaboration with the CPC ends


» Niels Jørgensen joins KUF
» Gotfred Appel and Ulla Hauton visit PFLP representatives in Jordan
» KUF members are involved in riots during protests against the World Bank summit in Copenhagen
» Ungkommunisten ceases publication


» Torkil Lauesen joins KUF


» Tøj til Afrika (TTA) founded


» January 10: burglary at a Danish Army weapons depot in Jægerborg, Copenhagen


» December 9: robbery of a cash-in-transit truck on Nordre Fasanvej in Copenhagen (500,000 crowns)


» September 2: robbery at the Lyrskovgade post office in Copenhagen (550,000 crowns)
» November 8: postal money transfer scam in Copenhagen (1.4 million crowns)


» KAK’s “anti–gender discrimination campaign” begins


» KAK splits into three different organizations: KAK with Gotfred Appel and Ulla Hauton (dissolves 1980), MAG (dissolves 1980), and M-KA with Peter Døllner, Holger Jensen, Niels Jørgensen, Torkil Lauesen, and Jan Weimann (dissolves 1989 after the Blekingegade Group members’ arrest)


» September 15: Holger Jensen dies in a traffic accident


» Karsten Møller Hansen and Bo Weimann join M-KA’s illegal activities
» Work on the Z-file begins
» April 2: robbery of a post office at Vesterport, Copenhagen (768,000 crowns)
» November 9: burglary at a Swedish Army weapons depot in Flen 1983
» March 2: robbery of a cash-in-transit truck in Lyngby (8.3 million crowns)


» Rausing kidnapping plans abandoned
» Peter Døllner leaves M-KA
» September 27: Blekingegade apartment rented
» December 3: robbery at the Herlev post office in Copenhagen (1.5 million crowns)


» Tøj til Afrika turns into Café Liberation (opens in April 1997)
» December 22: robbery at the Daells shopping center in central Copenhagen (5.5 million crowns)


» Bo Weimann leaves M-KA
» November 3: Købmagergade robbery (13 million crowns)


» April 13: Peter Døllner, Niels Jørgensen, Torkil Lauesen, and Jan Weimann arrested
» May 2: Carsten Nielsen injured and arrested following a car accident, Blekingegade apartment discovered, Karsten Møller Hansen arrested
» August 10: Bo Weimann arrested


» September 3: trial against the Blekingegade Group members begins


» May 2: the Blekingegade Group members are sentenced to prison terms ranging from one year (Peter Døllner) to ten years (Niels Jørgensen, Torkil Lauesen, and Jan Weimann);
» October 14: Marc Rudin arrested in Turkey


» April 28: Marc Rudin extradited to Denmark
» October 20: Rudin sentenced to eight years in prison


» April 2: Carsten Nielsen released from prison
» April 8: Bo Weimann released from prison


» December 13: Niels Jørgensen, Torkil Lauesen, and Jan Weimann released from prison


» February 18: Marc Rudin deported to Switzerland


» Peter Øvig Knudsen’s two-volume history of the Blekingegade Group, Blekingegadebanden, is released


» The documentary film Blekingegadebanden and the TV series Blekingegade are aired
» The article “Det handler om politik” (“It Is All About Politics”), authored by Niels Jørgensen, Torkil Lauesen, and Jan Weimann, appears in Social Kritik no. 117, March 2009

The years in parentheses relate to KUF, KAK, or M-KA membership, not necessarily involvement in the illegal practice.

Peter Døllner (1968–1985), sentenced to 1 year
Niels Jørgensen (1970-1989), sentenced to 10 years
Torkil Lauesen (1971–1989), sentenced to 10 years
Karsten Møller Hansen (1978–1987), sentenced to 3 years
Carsten Nielsen (1987–1989), sentenced to 8 years
Bo Weimann (1978–1988), sentenced to 7 years
Jan Weimann (1968–1989), sentenced to 10 years

Approximate exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the Danish crown:
January 1972, 1 = 7.1
January 1975, 1 = 5.7
January 1978, 1 = 5.8
January 1981, 1 = 6.0
January 1984, 1 = 9.9
January 1987, 1 = 7.4
January 1990, 1 = 6.6

For literature by and about KAK, M-KA, and the Blekingegade Group please consult the excellent website, which also contains most of the (limited) material available in English. A notable publication is the 1994 book Blekingegade 2, 1th, written by Betina Bendix and Lene Løvschall, which is the only Danish book that contains interviews with the former Blekingegade Group members Niels Jørgensen, Torkil Lauesen, Carsten Nielsen, and Jan Weimann.