CWC: Unequal Exchange
CWC: Unequal Exchange
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About the book:

Unequal Exchange and the Prospects of Socialism. By Communist Working Group (M-KA). [Published by Manifest Press, Copenhagen 1986, 233 p.]

The book is online.

Page no. refer to pages in the printed edition

The notes in this online edition are placed in the bottom of each chapter.


Chapter I : Introduction

The Purpose of Theory is Practice p. 19
Marxism – Dialectical Materialism p. 20
Analysis of the Economic Conditions is Fundamental p. 20
The Main Social Contradiction p. 22
The Relationship Between Consciousness and Being p. 23
The Population of the World is Divided into Rich and Poor p. 25
The Consequences of the Present World Order p. 28
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Chapter II : The Historical Background of Unequal Exchange

The Development of Capitalism in the Nineteenth Century p. 31
Britain’s Industrial Monopoly p. 32
The Contradiction Production – Consumption p. 32
Marx & Engels On the Potentialities of Capitalism p. 34
The New Manifestation of the Contradiction p. 39
The Development of the United States of America from Colony to Advanced Capitalist Power p. 46
Summary p. 54
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Chapter III : The Theory of Unequal Exchange

Introduction p. 57
The Capitalist Mode of Accumulation p. 59
Commodity Production – Generally Defined p. 61
Simple Commodity Production p. 61
Commodity Production Under Developed Capitalism p. 62
Primitive Accumulation p. 63
Labour-Power – Its Value and Price p. 65
Productivity and Wages p. 71
The Use-Value of Labour-Power p. 77
The Circulation of Capital p. 78
Surplus-Value p. 80
The Rate of Surplus-Value p. 80
Cost-Price p. 81
The Rate of Profit p. 82
The Creation of an Average Rate of Profit Between the Branches of Production p. 83
The Conditions for an Equalization of the Rate of Profit Nationally p. 88
Summary p. 89
The World Market p. 89
Unequal Exchange Between Countries p. 90
On Exploitation Between Countries p. 94
On Exploitation p. 96
South Africa – A Concrete Example p. 98
Global Inequality p. 103
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Chapter IV : The Validity of the Prerequisites of Unequal Exchange

Introduction p. 105
Variation in Wages in a Divided World p. 107
The Concrete Variations in Wages p. 109
Working conditions p. 114
Productivity and Wages p. 116
Productivity and Wages – Final Remarks p. 120
Conclusion p. 122
Equalization of the Rate of Profit p. 123
Capital Movements p.128
Conclusion p.131
The Size of the Unequal Exchange p. 131
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Chapter V : The Possibilities of Socialism in a Divided World

On Productive Forces and Conditions of Production p.143
The Possibilities of Socialism in the imperialist Countries p. 144
Reformism p. 147
The Rise of Reformism p. 147
The Political Development in the Interwar Period p.154
The Effects of Unequal Exchange on International Solidarity p.156
The Working Class has Become a “Sacred Cow” to the Left Wing p.170
Conclusion for the Imperialist Countries p. 174
The Possibilities of Socialism in the Exploited Countries p. 177
What is Development and Underdevelopment? p. 178
The Connection Between Unequal Exchange and Unequal Development p. 180
For a New World Order – What is Progressive? p.189
For a Socialist World Order p. 191
Conclusion Concerning the Perspectives of Socialism in the Exploited Countries p. 195
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List of Tables